Aresearchguide Bibliography

For the detailed information on citing sources using MLA style with many more examples, please use the official MLA Handbook:


All information relating to MLA style as presented on this Web site has been based on this authoritative publication from the Modern Language Association of America.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.

Works Cited is sometimes referred to as References. These terms mean the same thing. Each is an alphabetical list of works cited, or works to which you have made reference. Works Cited is generally used when citing sources using MLA (Modern Language Association) style, while the title References is used when citing sources using APA (American Psychological Association) style.

MLA Works Cited and Bibliography are not the same. In Works Cited you only list items you have actually cited. In a Bibliography you list all of the material you have consulted in preparing your essay whether or not you have actually cited the work.

Entries in Works Cited, References, or Bibliography are put in alphabetical order by last names of authors, editors, translators, etc. or by first words of titles.

Special info about MLA bibliography example.

If the first word of the title is “The“, “A“, or “An“, and the word is being used as an article, e.g., in the title: The Little Book of Irish Clans, the entry is placed under “Little” and the article “The” is ignored. In the title: A Is for Apple, however, the entry is placed under A since A is used as a noun and not as an article in this case.

Sometimes the article “The” is used as part of the name of a company or magazine or journal for emphasis, e.g., The Champ, or The Sports Network. For Internet sites, use the URL as a guide. If “theyellowpages” is used in the URL, treat “The” as part of the title, and list “The Yellow Pages” alphabetically under “The“. If “edge” and not “theedge” is used in the URL, list the magazine title “The Edge” under “Edge” and treat “The” as an article and ignore it.

Where appropriate, a cross reference may be used to direct readers to the proper location, e.g. Yellow Pages, The See The Yellow Pages.


1. DO NOT number entries.

2. DO NOT list citations separately by categories. All references are placed in ONE ALPHABETICAL LIST by first words of citations, regardless of where citations come from.

3. Begin on a new page. Start on the 6th line from the top (or 1″ down from the top of the paper), center, and type one of the following titles: Works Cited, References, or Bibliography. Double space after the title. List all entries in alphabetical order by the first word, taking into consideration the rules governing titles that begin with articles.

4. Begin the first line of each entry flush at the left margin. Keep typing until you run out of room at the end of the line. Indent 5 spaces for second and subsequent lines of the same entry. Double-space all lines, both within and between entries. Remember that this is only a guideline adapted from the MLA Handbook. You are advised to follow the style preferred by your instructor.

Work Cited Vs Works Cited

There is a mistake that students often tend to make. They name their reference page the Work Cited page, which is incorrect. The proper name for it should be Works Cited, as the works by multiple authors, not one, are cited. The Works Cited page is often used in the Humanities, the MLA Style and the APA Style.

As you are writing a research paper, it is important to cite all of your work sources in order to give proper credit. For typical essays, a bibliography page contains the authors of the work, titles, the date that the work was published, and page numbers. But for major papers, such as a PhD dissertation, you are often required to go further. This is where an annotated bibliography comes into play.

What is An Annotated Bibliography?

Whenever you work on an important academic paper, you are required to include an annotated bibliography containing sources that are relevant to your topic, accurate, and contain research from reputable authors. What is an annotated bibliography? The definition of an annotated bibliography is a list of citations to the works that are used in your essay. This can include academic journals, magazine articles, and books.

Annotated Bibliography Format

Note that the style in which you structure the annotated bibliography differs in subtle ways depending whether your project guidelines require the use the APA, MLA or Chicago/Turabian annotated bibliography format. Below you can find an annotated bibliography template for each of the bibliography example.

How to Make An Annotated Bibliography

Composing an annotated bibliography requires the use of various intellectual abilities including concise exposition, analysis that is brief yet highly informative, and scouring the library for the best possible sources.

The first step is to seek out and make a list of citations from books, journals and other relevant works that might be helpful in your own research. Then select the sources that would best allow you to accomplish your goals. Do not simply include the sources that support your hypothesis; it is also important to include works, which offer a variety of perspectives and opinions.

Cite your sources based on the formatting style as stipulated by your academic institution or adviser.

Write a short, informative annotation that provides a summary of the main purpose and scope of the work. The content should include an examination of the reputability of the author, a discussion on the intended audience, a compare/contrast with another source that you used, or an explanation on how this source enhances your bibliography topic.

Example of Annotated Bibliography


MLA Style Sample
Henderson, James. Winning at Life: How to Be Your Best Self.

Tweek Publishing, 2015.

Henderson’s book offers useful advice on how to overcome a lack of confidence and succeed through self-acceptance. Rather than explaining the points in a dry, clinical manner, Henderson incorporates a great deal of humor and even uses anecdotes based on his own personal experience in order to make his book more relatable to the reader.  The chapters of his book deal with advice on such aspects as how to influence people, how to project confidence, and how to increase what he calls the “likeability factor.”

While the book serves to help the reader overcome their personality weaknesses, the main purpose is to provide a non-judgmental approach to succeeding at life by focusing on the positive traits that everybody possesses rather than lecturing or otherwise putting down the reader. The result is an uplifting way to conquer fears and insecurities.

This book could easily be incorporated into college courses related to public relations, diplomacy, and even psychology. Several chapters are tailor-made for students who are about to enter the real world for the first time and who might not yet have honed their personality skills sufficiently. The book is engaging and easy to read, making it suitable for both young adults and mature readers alike.

The MLA style includes three paragraphs: a summary, an assessment of the work, and an explanation for how it applies to the writer’s own research.

APA Style Sample
Nowak, M. (1999). Revolution: Growing Up in Communist Poland.
London: Pennington Press.

This book of nonfiction offers a unique account of a Polish teenager growing up in the country
during its days of communist dictatorship rule. He discusses his day-to-day life of living in
Krakow, the third largest city in Poland, during the political turmoil of the late 1980s. But aside
from putting up with nuisances such as the food shortages and his politically active father
constantly being harassed by the secret police, he writes about endearing encounters and
friendships that he developed in a time of paranoia and uncertainty.
While Nowak notes that his experiences likely differed from that of his fellow compatriots
living in Poland at the time, it nonetheless serves as an informative look about the life of a typical
Polish kid. His work appears sincere, is easy to relate to, and is free of exaggerations or anything
else that would call into question the authenticity of his experiences.

The APA style includes a summary and assessment. For this style, discussing the usefulness of the work as it relates to the person’s own research is not required

Chicago/Turabian Style Sample
Calipari, Anthony James. Life in the Mob. New York: King Books, 1999.

Calipari’s book offers a comprehensive examination of what life is like for New York mafia
figures and their immediate family members. Calipari interviews more than 50 participants who
discuss how their associations with organized crime effected them in their professional and
personal lives. The author also discusses and provides an overview of the history of some of the
most notorious crime families. The book also provides exclusive photos of family life, including
vacations and social gatherings.

The Chicago/Turabian style consists of one paragraph and merely requires a summary.

Recommended Reading: What is a Rhetorical Analysis.

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