Northern Areas Of Pakistan Essay

If you are a native or a foreigner in Pakistan, the place has some amazing sightseeing and historical places for you to visit. If you are a nature enthusiast, then Pakistan is one of the top destinations in the world to explore. It is known as the “Land of Peaks” and the epic sceneries of the Northern Pakistan are totally phenomenal. It is true that access to some of the remote areas is not too good because of the poor road conditions and lack of resources. But, this isn’t an excuse to deny from seeing the most spectacular sceneries that you could ever in any other place in the world will get a chance to see. If you are really after some jaw dropping valleys and mountains to witness, then read on; we have prepared a list of some for you of most beautiful valleys in Pakistan.

The most beautiful places in Pakistan:

Here are 10 places from the list of the most beautiful places in Pakistan. All of them are really worth visiting if given a chance:

Neelum Valley:

Photo Credit: Akashahmed

It is hard to capture the awesomeness of the Neelum Valley into words. You really need to see the place to believe it. It is a bow shaped valley spanning nearly 144 km in the Azad Kashmir region. It is located in the North East of Muzaffarabad, which is the capital of Azad Kashmir. The place has awesome scenic beauty with towering hills, noisy River Neelum and the excellent panoramic views. The enchanting streams and the lush green forests of the area create a great magical spell for the visitors. The place is about 6 hours drive from the capital city, Islamabad. The weather here is awesome in summer which is the best time to visit the place. It snows heavily here during the winter season. Some top places to sea in the area includes the Halmet, Sharda Fort, Baboon, Kutton, Jagran, Karen, Surgon, Kel and many more areas. You need to spare at least 3 to 4 days in order to explore the length and breadth of the Neelum Valley, which would actually be a trip of your lifetime.

Rawalakot:

Photo Credit: Jehanzeb Ghafoor

Rawalakot is another fabulous locality in the Pakistan administered area of Azad Kashmir. If you are looking for a magnificent tour of Pakistan then this is the place that you can never afford to miss. The great thing is that the place is just about 3-4 hours drive from Islamabad and the road links aren’t bad either. If we talk about the specific spots in the area then the places to visit here includes the Toli Pir and Banjosa which are the highlight of the area. The best thing about Banjosa is its beautiful lake which is surrounded by thick and dense forest. Toli Pir offers some fantastic opportunities for the visitors which includes outstanding views of the valley and then the activities like trekking, hiking, paragliding, rock climbing are enjoyed here a lot. The best time to visit the place is in summers or between April till September. If you want to make the most of your time then make sure to pack some meat for having a lovely Barbecue there in the evening.

Swat Valley:

Photo Credit: Isruma

Swat Valley is the highlight of the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is also famously known as the “Switzerland of Pakistan” which is absolutely not exaggerating to say as the place has got that level of natural beauty. It was the words of Queen Elizabeth actually who stated this place as the Switzerland of Pakistan when she visited the place a few decades ago. People from all over the country and even from different parts of the world come to this area for witnessing some of the most delightful sceneries. The Swat River flows at a furious speed which is also a treat to watch. It is a big valley but the most notable places of this area includes Miandem, Malam Jabba, Kalam, Bahrain, Ghabral, Pari Lake and the beautiful Daral Lake. The tourists have a lot of things to do in the area such as hiking, trekking and paragliding etc. Malam Jabba is the place to visit in winters where excellent facilities are available for the skiing buffs. Other than this thing, you can visit the Swat Valley in the summers which is the best season.

Hunza Valley:

Photo Credit: Faizan Ahmad

There would hardly be anybody in this world who wouldn’t fell in love with this place. This valley is surrounded with some huge mountains which is the best thing about the place. It is situated in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan and you will see several local and foreign tourists who especially come here for climbing some of the top peaks of the world. The major peaks in this area include the Rakaposhi, Diran Peak, Passu Peak, Ghenta Peak and the Ultar Sar etc. Apart from this, some other fantastic spots in the valley include the famous Attabad Lake, Karimabad, Nasirabad and the Duikar Valley. It gets intensely cold here during the winters with some really heavy snowfall. The road links with other parts of the country are usually disconnected during the peak winter season. So, it is the summer time or middle of the year which is regarded as the best time to visit the place. It is guaranteed that the trip will create long lasting memories for you which you will cherish all your life.

Shandur:

Photo Credit: Asim Nisar Bajwa

Shandur attracts thousands of visitors if not millions every year to witness the traditional and much interesting Polo Tournament. Shandur is known to have the highest polo ground of the world and the Polo tournament in the area started in 1936 and it is still organized annually. During, the Polo season, the valley offers a lot of exciting options for the tourists where the folk musical performances by locals are enjoyed by both the locals and the foreign tourists. The best way to enjoy here in Shandur is to do camping and you will totally be mesmerized with the brilliant alps that you will witness all through the day. It is a beautiful region but not much population. It presents its visitors with excellent view of the snow peaks in winters and in summer it becomes even more striking and appealing. The place is not too far from Chitral which is another beautiful place. Chitral is connected with Peshawar, the capital city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through air links. So reaching Shandur is not as such a big deal. However, the road links between Shandur and Chitral are not that good but still it is worth going for the place.

Kalash Valley:

Photo Credit: Manal Khan

Kalash Valley is one of the most picturesque and attractive valley of Pakistan. It has some finest sceneries, awesome forests and amazing Kalash river. The Greek civilized tribe Kalashais a very unique tribe with traditional culture that mesmerizes everyone who visit this place. The visitors especially those from outside of Pakistan love to get along with the friendly people of the tribe and enjoy a lot their traditional dance which in itself is a great thing to witness. The Kalash Valley on its sides is surrounded by the Acholgah and the Rumbur valleys which are also considered as the ‘must see’ places. Apart from this, the Mumuret valley is also very popular. This fascinating and charming valley could only be accessed by road through the area of Ayun in the Kunar Valley using the local transportation. The wooden bridges over the fast flowing rivers is really a treat to cross and such wooden bridges, you can witness in a number of areas.

Kaghan Valley:

Photo Credit: Waqas Usman

Kaghan Valley is probably one of the most visited tourist places of Pakistan which is situated in the Northern side of the Mansehra District. It is mainly because of the immense beauty of the area and the road links are absolutely marvelous. It lay in the lower Himalayan range and the place is world famous for its bewitching splendor. You really need to spare some good 4 to 5 days for exploring the entire area. The famous Saiful Malook Lake is situated here near Naran which is the most famous lake of Pakistan. The lake is worthy of spending a whole day and so many things could be done in the area such as rock climbing, horse riding, hiking and trekking etc. Unfortunately, there are no water sports at this lake due to some safety reasons. Apart from this, some other famous tourist spots in the valley are Shogran, Lulu Sar Lake, Babu Sar Pass and Jared etc. All these places are not very closely located so be sure to plan your tour before travelling to the Kaghan Valley. Like many other Northern hill stations of Pakistan, the best time to visit Kaghan Valley is from April/ May till September.

Murree Hills:

Photo Credit: Mustafa Mushtaq

Murree is a very famous tourist spot which is just about 50 km from the capital city of Islamabad. The road links are fantastic and the tourist facilities in Murree are the best that you can ever witness in any other tourist spot in Pakistan. The place is located in the North Eastern side of the Rawalpindi and Islamabad twin cities. The sudden climatic change within minutes is something that everyone in Pakistan loves to witness particularly in the gust of hot summer afternoons. The Mall road Murree offers great shopping facilities for the tourists and the restaurants there are awesome too. You can enjoy all sorts of cuisines in this area. The other places connected to Murree which you must think about visiting include the Nathia Gali, Bara Gali, Dunga Gali, New Murree and Mushkpuri Hill etc. Murree is situated at a height of 7000 feet and Nathia Gali is the highest point in the range which is at 9000 feet.

Jhelum Valley:

Photo Credit: Medimind2003 via Wikimedia

Jhelum Valley (not to be confused with Jhelum city located in District Jhelum) is part of Azad Kashmir which is an excellent place to explore both for the local and international tourists. The long River Jhelum passes from the East side to the West between the beautiful lush green mountains of the valley. The Leepa Valley is an eye catching spot of the area which is a must see place. You will completely be spell bound with the traditional Kashmiri style wooden houses that you will see in the valley. Further, the rice fields are also famous which are picturesque to say the least. The soil of the area is rich for cultivation where the eatables like apple, walnut, honey and cherry are in huge demand. Apart from this some other worth visiting areas of the Jhelum Valley include the Chikar, Peerchanasi, Chakothi, Leepa, Zilzaal Lake and the Ghari Dopatta. The place is easily approachable from Islamabad with a 3 hours drive. The weather here in the summer sometimes could get a bit hot due to its lower elevation but still it is a fantastic place to visit.

Ziarat:

Photo Credit: RasheedFR

Almost all the places discussed above are in the Northern Pakistan but Ziarat is completely on a different side of Pakistan. It is part of Balochistan which could be accessed by road through the city of Quetta in just 3 hours. The road links between Ziarat and Quetta use to be very poor but they are getting good with time, just to facilitate the locals and as well as the tourists. It is a very famous tourist spot which is usually an ultimate destination for most of the people living in entire Balochistan and even from Karachi and Hyderabad which are giant cities located in Sindh. The chief commissioner of Balochistan and the Sanatorium European troops in Quetta. Quetta is a worth visiting city but your trip would be incomplete of Balochistan if you miss to see the Ziarat area. In summer, the weather is excellent here and in winters you can expect some serious snowfall in the region.

 

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Gilgit-Baltistan
گلگت بلتستان‬
Administrative territory of Pakistan[1]

Top left to right: Attabad Lake, K2, Passu, Cold Desert and Deosai National Park


Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): GB

Gilgit-Baltistan is shaded in red. The rest of Pakistan is shown in white. The Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir is indicated by hatching.
Coordinates: 35°21′N75°54′E / 35.35°N 75.9°E / 35.35; 75.9Coordinates: 35°21′N75°54′E / 35.35°N 75.9°E / 35.35; 75.9
Country Pakistan
Established1 Nov 1948
CapitalGilgit
Largest citySkardu[3]
Government
 • TypeSelf-governing territory of Pakistan
 • BodyLegislative assembly
 • GovernorMir Ghanzafar Ali[4]
 • Chief MinisterHafeezur Rahman[5]
Area
 • Total72,971 km2 (28,174 sq mi)
 [6]
Population (2015)
 • Total1,800,000
Time zonePKT (UTC+5)
ISO 3166 codePK-GB
Main languagesBalti, Shina, Burushaski
Assembly seats33[7]
Districts10
Towns9
Websitegilgitbaltistan.gov.pk

Gilgit-Baltistan (Urdu: گلگت بلتستان‬‎), formerly known as the Northern Areas,[10] is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.[1] It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, and the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast. According to UNSC Resolution of 1947 the territory is part of the disputed Kashmir region along with Azad Kashmir, Aksai Chin, the Shaksgam Valley, and Jammu, Ladakh, and the Valley of Kashmir.[1][11][12]

The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas". It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan district and several small former princely states, the larger of which being Hunza and Nagar. In 2009, it was granted limited autonomy and renamed to Gilgit-Baltistan via the Self-Governance Order signed by Pakistan president Asif Ali Zardari, which also aimed to empower the people of Gilgit-Baltistan. However, scholars state that the real power rests with the governor and not with chief minister or elected assembly.[13][14] The population of Gilgit-Baltistan wants to be merged into Pakistan as a separate fifth province and opposes integration with Kashmir.[15][16] The Pakistani government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions.[17]

Gilgit-Baltistan covers an area of over 72,971 km² (28,174 sq mi)[6] and is highly mountainous. It had an estimated population of 1,800,000 in 2015. Its capital city is Gilgit (population 216,760 est). Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the "eight-thousanders" and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan. Tourism is mostly in trekking and mountaineering, and this industry is growing in importance.

Early history

Main article: History of Gilgit-Baltistan

The rock carvings found in various places in Gilgit-Baltistan, especially those found in the Passu village of Hunza, suggest a human presence since 2000 BC.[19] Within the next few centuries after human settlement in the Tibetan plateau, this region became inhabited by Tibetans, who preceded the Balti people of Baltistan. Today Baltistan bears similarity to Ladakh physically and culturally (although not religiously). Dards are found mainly in the western areas. These people are the Shina-speaking peoples of Gilgit, Chilas, Astore and Diamir while in Hunza and in the upper regions Burushaski and Khowar speakers dominate. The Dards find mention in the works of Herodotus,[a]Nearchus, Megasthenes, Pliny,[b]Ptolemy,[c] and the geographical lists of the Puranas.[20] In the 1st century the people of these regions were followers of the Bon religion while in the 2nd century they followed Buddhism.

Between 399 and 414, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited Gilgit-Baltistan,[21] while in the 6th century Somana Palola (greater Gilgit-Chilas) was ruled by an unknown king. Between 627 and 645, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang travelled through this region on his pilgrimage to India.

According to Chinese records from the Tang dynasty, between the 600s and the 700s, the region was governed by a Buddhist dynasty referred to as Bolü (Chinese: 勃律; pinyin: bólǜ), also transliterated as Palola, Patola, Balur.[22] They are believed to be the Palola Sāhi dynasty mentioned in a Brahmi inscription,[23] and are devout adherents of Vajrayana Buddhism.[24] At the time, Little Palola (Chinese: 小勃律) was used to refer to Gilgit, while Great Palola (Chinese: 大勃律) was used to refer to Baltistan. However, the records do not consistently disambiguate the two.

In mid-600s, Gilgit came under Chinese suzerainty after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate due to Tang military campaigns in the region. In late 600s CE, the rising Tibetan Empire wrestled control of the region from the Chinese. However, faced with growing influence of the Umayyad Caliphate and then the Abbasid Caliphate to the west, the Tibetans were forced to ally themselves with the Islamic caliphates. The region was then contested by Chinese and Tibetan forces, and their respective vassal states, until the mid-700s.[25] Rulers of Gilgit formed an alliance with the Tang Chinese and held back the Arabs with their help.[26]

Between 644 and 655, Navasurendrāditya-nandin became king of Palola Sāhi dynasty in Gilgit.[27] Numerous Sanskrit inscriptions, including the Danyor Rock Inscriptions, were discovered to be from his reign.[28] In late 600s and early 700s, Jayamaṅgalavikramāditya-nandin was king of Gilgit.[27]

According to Chinese court records, in 717 and 719 respectively, delegations of a ruler of Great Palola (Baltistan) named Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni (Chinese: 蘇弗舍利支離泥; pinyin: sūfúshèlìzhīlíní) reached the Chinese imperial court.[29][30] By at least 719/720, Ladakh (Mard) has became part of the Tibetan Empire. By that time, Buddhism was practiced in Baltistan, and Sanskrit was the written language.

In 720, the delegation of Surendrāditya (Chinese: 蘇麟陀逸之; pinyin: sūlíntuóyìzhī) reached the Chinese imperial court. He was referred to by the Chinese records as the king of Great Palola; however, it is unknown if Baltistan was under Gilgit rule at the time.[31] The Chinese emperor also granted the ruler of Cashmere, Chandrāpīḍa ("Tchen-fo-lo-pi-li"), the title of "King of Cashmere". By 721/722, Baltistan had came under the influence of the Tibetan Empire.[32]

In 721–722, Tibetan army attempted but failed to capture Gilgit or Bruzha (Yasin valley). By this time, according to Chinese records, the king of Little Palola was Mo-ching-mang (Chinese: 沒謹忙; pinyin: méijǐnmáng). He had visited Tang court requesting military assistance against the Tibetans.[33] Between 723–728, the Korean Buddhist pilgrim Hyecho passed through this area. In 737/738, Tibetan troops under the leadership of Minister Bel Kyesang Dongtsab of Emperor Me Agtsom took control of Little Palola. By 747, the Chinese army under the leadership of the ethnic-Korean commander Gao Xianzhi had recaptured Little Palola.[34] Great Palola was subsequently captured by the Chinese army in 753 under the military Governor Feng Changqing. However, by 755, due to the An Lushan rebellion, the Tang Chinese forces withdrew and was no longer able to exert influence in Central Asia and in the regions around Gilgit-Baltistan.[35] The control of the region was left to the Tibetan Empire. They referred to the region as Bruzha, a toponym that is consistent with the ethnonym "Burusho" used today. Tibetan control of the region lasted until late-800s CE.[36]

Turkic tribes practicing Zoroastrianism arrived in Gilgit during the 7th century, and founded the Trakhan dynasty in Gilgit.[26]

Medieval history

In the 14th century Sufi Muslim preachers from Persia and Central Asia introduced Islam in Baltistan. Famous amongst them was Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani who came via Kashmir[37] while in the Gilgit region Islam entered in the same century through Turkic Tarkhan rulers. Gilgit-Baltistan was ruled by many local rulers, amongst whom the Maqpon dynasty of Skardu and the Rajas of Hunza were famous. The Maqpons of Skardu unfied Gilgit-Baltistan with Chitral and Ladakh, especially in the era of Ali Sher Khan Anchan[38] who had friendly relations with the Mughal court.[39] Anchan reign brought prosperity and entertained art, sport, and variety in architecture. He introduced polo to the Gilgit region and from Chitral he sent a group of musicians to Delhi to learn Indian music; the Mughal architecture influenced the architecture of the region as well.[40] Later Anchan in his successors Abdal Khan had great influence though in the popular literature of Baltistan he is still alive as dark figure by the nickname "Mizos" "man-eater". The last Maqpons Raja, Ahmed Shah, ruled all of Baltistan between 1811–1840. The areas of Gilgit, Chitral and Hunza had already become independent of the Maqpons.[citation needed]

Before the demise of Shribadat, a group of Shin people migrated from Gilgit Dardistan and settled in the Dras and Kharmang areas. The descendants of those Dardic people can be still found today, and are believed to have maintained their Dardic culture and Shina language up to the present time.[citation needed]

Modern history

Dogra rule

In November 1839, Dogra commander Zorawar Singh, whose allegiance was to Gulab Singh, started his campaign against Baltistan.[42] By 1840 he conquered Skardu and captured its ruler, Ahmad Shah. Ahmad Shah was then forced to accompany Zorawar Singh on his raid into Western Tibet. Meanwhile, Baghwan Singh was appointed as administrator (Thanadar) in Skardu. But in the following year, Ali Khan of Rondu, Haidar Khan of Shigar and Daulat Ali Khan from Khaplu led a successful uprising against the Dogras in Baltistan and captured the Dogra commander Baghwan Singh in Skardu.[43]

In 1842, Dogra Commander Wasir Lakhpat, with the active support of Ali Sher Khan (III) from lKartaksho, conquered Baltistan for the second time. There was a violent capture of the fortress of Kharphocho. Haidar Khan from Shigar, one of the leaders of the uprising against the Dogras,[44] was imprisoned and died in captivity. Gosaun was appointed as administrator (Thanadar) of Baltistan and till 1860, the entire region of Gilgit-Baltistan was under the Sikhs and then the Dogras.[45][46]

After the defeat of the Sikhs in the First Anglo-Sikh War, the region became a part of the princely state called Jammu and Kashmir which since 1846 remained under the rule of the Dogras. The population in Gilgit perceived itself to be ethnically different from Kashmiris and disliked being ruled by the Kashmir state.[47] The region remained with the princely state, with temporary leases of some areas assigned to the British, until 1 November 1947.

First Kashmir War

After Pakistan's independence, Jammu and Kashmir initially remained an independent state. Later on 22 October 1947, tribal militias backed by Pakistan crossed the border into Jammu and Kashmir.[48][49] Local tribal militias and the Pakistani armed forces moved to take Srinagar but on reaching Uri they encountered defensive forces. Hari Singh made a plea to India for assistance and signed the Instrument of Accession.

Gilgit's population did not favour the State's accession to India. The Muslims of the Frontier Districts Province (modern day Gilgit-Baltistan) had wanted to join Pakistan.[51] Sensing their discontent, Major William Brown, the Maharaja's commander of the Gilgit Scouts, mutinied on 1 November 1947, overthrowing the Governor Ghansara Singh. The bloodless coup d'etat was planned by Brown to the last detail under the code name "Datta Khel", which was also joined by a rebellious section of the Jammu and Kashmir 6th Infantry under Mirza Hassan Khan. Brown ensured that the treasury was secured and minorities were protected. A provisional government (Aburi Hakoomat) was established by the Gilgit locals with Raja Shah Rais Khan as the president and Mirza Hassan Khan as the commander-in-chief. However, Major Brown had already telegraphed Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan asking Pakistan to take over. The Pakistani political agent, Khan Mohammad Alam Khan, arrived on 16 November and took over the administration of Gilgit.[53] Brown outmaneuvered the pro-Independence group and secured the approval of the mirs and rajas for accession to Pakistan. Browns's actions surprised the British Government.[54] According to Brown,

Alam replied [to the locals], "you are a crowd of fools led astray by a madman. I shall not tolerate this nonsense for one instance... And when the Indian Army starts invading you there will be no use screaming to Pakistan for help, because you won't get it."... The provisional government faded away after this encounter with Alam Khan, clearly reflecting the flimsy and opportunistic nature of its basis and support.

The provisional government lasted 16 days. The provisional government lacked sway over the population. The Gilgit rebellion did not have civilian involvement and was solely the work of military leaders, not all of whom had been in favor of joining Pakistan, at least in the short term. Historian Ahmed Hasan Dani mentions that although there was lack of public participation in the rebellion, pro-Pakistan sentiments were intense in the civilian population and their anti-Kashmiri sentiments were also clear.[56] According to various scholars, the people of Gilgit as well as those of Chilas, Koh Ghizr, Ishkoman, Yasin, Punial, Hunza and Nagar joined Pakistan by choice.[57][58][59][61]

After taking control of Gilgit, the Gilgit Scouts along with Azad irregulars moved towards Baltistan and Ladakh and captured Skardu by May 1948. They successfully blocked the Indian reinforcements and subsequently captured Dras and Kargill as well, cutting off the Indian communications to Leh in Ladakh. The Indian forces mounted an offensive in Autumn 1948 and recaptured all of Kargil district. Baltistan region, however, came under Gilgit control.[63]

On 1 January 1948, India took the issue of Jammu and Kashmir to the United Nations Security Council. In April 1948, the Council passed a resolution calling for Pakistan to withdraw from all of Jammu and Kashmir and India to reduce its forces to the minimum level, following which a plebiscite would be held to ascertain the people's wishes.[64] However, no withdrawal was ever carried out, India insisting that Pakistan had to withdraw first and Pakistan contending that there was no guarantee that India would withdraw afterwards.[65] Gilgit-Baltistan and a western portion of the state called Azad Jammu and Kashmir have remained under the control of Pakistan since then.[66]

While the residents of Gilgit-Baltistan expressed a desire to join Pakistan after gaining independence from Maharaja Hari Singh, Pakistan declined to merge the region into itself because of the territory's link to Jammu and Kashmir. For a short period after joining Pakistan, Gilgit-Baltistan was governed by Azad Kashmir if only "theoretically, but not practically" through its claim of being an alternative government for Jammu and Kashmir. In 1949, the Government of Azad Kashmir handed administration of the area to the federal government via the Karachi Agreement, on an interim basis which gradually assumed permanence. According to Indian journalist Sahni, this is seen as an effort by Pakistan to legitimize its rule over Gilgit-Baltistan.

There were two reasons why administration was transferred from Azad Kashmir to Pakistan: (1) the region was inaccessible to Azad Kashmir and (2) because both the governments of Azad Kashmir and Pakistan knew that the people of the region were in favour of joining Pakistan in a potential referendum over Kashmir's final status.

According to the International Crisis Group, the Karachi Agreement is highly unpopular in Gilgit-Baltistan because Gilgit-Baltistan was not a party to it even while its fate was being decided upon.

From then until 1990s, Gilgit-Baltistan was governed through the colonial-era Frontier Crimes Regulations, which treated tribal people as "barbaric and uncivilised," levying collective fines and punishments.[71] People had no right to legal representation or a right to appeal.[71] Members of tribes had to obtain prior permission from the police to travel to any location and had to keep the police informed about their movements. There was no democratic set-up for Gilgit-Baltistan during this period. All political and judicial powers remained in the hands of the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas (KANA). The people of Gilgit-Baltistan were deprived of rights enjoyed by citizens of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir.

A primary reason for this state of affairs was the remoteness of Gilgit-Baltistan. Another factor was that the whole of Pakistan itself was deficient in democratic norms and principles, therefore the federal government did not prioritise democratic development in the region. There was also a lack of public pressure as an active civil society was absent in the region, with young educated residents usually opting to live in Pakistan's urban centers instead of staying in the region.

In 1970 the two parts of the territory, viz., the Gilgit Agency and Baltistan, were merged into a single administrative unit, and given the name "Northern Areas".[1] The Shaksgam tract was ceded by Pakistan to China following the signing of the Sino-Pakistani Frontier Agreement in 1963.[76][77] In 1969, a Northern Areas Advisory Council (NAAC) was created, later renamed to Northern Areas Council (NAC) in 1974 and Northern Areas Legislative Council (NALC) in 1994. But it was devoid of legislative powers. All law-making was concentrated in the KANA Ministry of Pakistan. In 1994, a Legal Framework Order (LFO) was created by the KANA Ministry to serve as the de facto constitution for the region.

In 1984 the territory's importance shot up on the domestic level with the opening of the Karakoram Highway and the region's population came to be more connected with mainland Pakistan. With the improvement in connectivity, the local population availed education opportunities in the rest of Pakistan. Improved connectivity also allowed the political parties of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir to setup local branches, raise political awareness in the region, and these Pakistani political parties have played a 'laudable role' in organising a movement for democratic rights among the residents of Gilgit-Baltistan.

In the late 1990s, the President of Al-Jihad Trust filed a petition in the Supreme Court of Pakistan to determine the legal status of Gilgit-Baltistan. In its judgement of 28 May 1999, the Court directed the Government of Pakistan to ensure the provision of equal rights to the people of Gilgit-Baltistan, and gave it six months to do so. Following the Supreme Court decision the government took several steps to devolve power to the local level. However, in several policy circles the point was raised that the Pakistani government was helpless to comply with the court verdict because of the strong political and sectarian divisions in Gilgit-Baltistan and also because of the territory's historical connection with the still disputed Kashmir region and this prevented the determination of Gilgit-Baltistan's real status.

A position of 'Deputy Chief Executive' was created to act as the local administrator, but the real powers still rested with the 'Chief Executive', who was the Federal Minister of KANA. "The secretaries were more powerful than the concerned advisors," in the words of one commentator. In spite of various reforms packages over the years, the situation is essentially unchanged. Meanwhile, public rage in Gilgit-Baltistan is "growing alarmingly." Prominent "antagonist groups" have mushroomed protesting the absence of civic rights and democracy. Pakistan government has been debating the grant of a provincial status to Gilgit-Baltistan.[84]

According to Antia Mato Bouzas, the PPP-led Pakistani government has attempted a compromise through its 2009 reforms between its traditional stand on the Kashmir dispute and the demands of locals, most of whom may have pro-Pakistan sentiments. While the 2009 reforms have added to the self-identification of the region, they have not resolved the constitutional status of the region within Pakistan.[85]

The people of Gilgit-Baltistan want to be merged into Pakistan as a separate fifth province,[15][16] however, leaders of Azad Kashmir are opposed to any step to integrate Gilgit-Baltistan into Pakistan.[86] The people of Gilgit-Baltistan oppose any integration with Kashmir and instead want Pakistani citizenship and constitutional status for their region.[15][16]

Government

Main article: Government of Gilgit-Baltistan

The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas". It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan District of the Ladakh Wazarat and the hill states of Hunza and Nagar. It presently consists of ten districts,[87] has a population approaching one million and an area of approximately 28,000 square miles (73,000 km2), and shares borders with Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, and India. In 1993, an attempt was made by the High Court of Azad Jammu and Kashmir to annex Gilgit-Baltistan but was quashed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan after protests by the locals of Gilgit-Baltistan, who feared domination by the Kashmiris.[17]

Government of Pakistan abolished State Subject Rule in Gilgit-Baltistan in 1974, which resulted in demographic changes in the territory.[88][89] While administratively controlled by Pakistan since the First Kashmir War, Gilgit-Baltistan has never been formally integrated into the Pakistani state and does not participate in Pakistan's constitutional political affairs.[90][91] On 29 August 2009, the Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order 2009, was passed by the Pakistani cabinet and later signed by the then President of PakistanAsif Ali Zardari.[92] The order granted self-rule to the people of Gilgit-Baltistan, by creating, among other things, an elected Gilgit-Baltistan Legislative Assembly and Gilgit-Baltistan Council. Gilgit-Baltistan thus gained a de facto province-like status without constitutionally becoming part of Pakistan.[90][93] Currently Gilgit-Baltistan is neither a province nor a state. It has a semi-provincial status.[94] Officially, the Pakistan government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions.[17] Some Kashmiri nationalist groups, such as the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, claim Gilgit-Baltistan as part of a future independent state to match what existed in 1947.[17] India, on the other hand, maintains that Gilgit-Baltistan is a part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir that is "an integral part of the country [India]."[95]

Regions

Gilgit-Baltistan is administratively divided into three divisions[96] which, in turn, are divided into ten districts, consisting of the four Baltistan districts of Skardu, Shigar, Kharmang, and Ghanche, and the four Gilgit districts of Gilgit, Ghizer, Hunza and Nagar and two districts of Diamer and Astore are part of Diamer Division.[97][98] The principal administrative centers are the towns of Gilgit and Skardu.

DivisionDistrictArea (km²)CapitalPopulation (2013)[99]Divisional Capital
BaltistanGhanche4,052Khaplu108,000Skardu
Shigar8,500Shigar-
Kharmang5,500Kharmang-
Skardu8,700Skardu305,000*
GilgitGilgit14,672Gilgit222,000Gilgit
Ghizer9,635Gahkuch190,000
Hunza7,900Aliabad70,000 (2015)
Nagar5,000Nagar51,387 (1998)[99]
DiamerDiamer10,936Chilas214,000Chilas
Astore5,092Eidghah114,000

* Combined population of Skardu, Shigar and Kharmang Districts. Shigar and Kharmang Districts were carved out of Skardu District after 1998. The estimated population of Gilgit-Baltistan was about 1.8 million in 2015 and the overall population growth rate between 1998 and 2011 was 63.1% making it 4.85% annually.[101][102]

Geography and climate

Main article: Geography of Gilgit-Baltistan

Gilgit-Baltistan borders Pakistan's Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province to the west, a small portion of the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region to the northeast, the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast, and the Pakistani-administered state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir to the south.

Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the "eight-thousanders" and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Gilgit and Skardu are the two main hubs for expeditions to those mountains. The region is home to some of the world's highest mountain ranges. The main ranges are the Karakoram and the western Himalayas. The Pamir Mountains are to the north, and the Hindu Kush lies to the west. Amongst the highest mountains are K2 (Mount Godwin-Austen) and Nanga Parbat, the latter being one of the most feared mountains in the world.

Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan: the Biafo Glacier, the Baltoro Glacier, and the Batura Glacier. There are, in addition, several high-altitude lakes in Gilgit-Baltistan:

  • Sheosar Lake in the Deosai Plains, skardu
  • Naltar lakes in the Naltar Valley, Gilgit
  • Satpara Tso Lake in Skardu, Baltistan
  • Katzura Tso Lake in Skardu, Baltistan
  • Zharba Tso Lake in Shigar, Baltistan
  • Phoroq Tso Lake in Skardu, Baltistan
  • Lake Kharfak in Gangche, Baltistan
  • Byarsa Tso Lake in Gultari, Astore
  • Borith Lake in Gojal, upper Hunza, Gilgit
  • Rama Lake near Astore
  • Rush Lake near Nagar, Gilgit
  • Kromber Lake at Kromber Pass Ishkoman Valley, Ghizer District
  • Barodaroksh Lake in Bar Valley, Nagar
  • Ghorashi Lake in Ghandus Valley, Kharmang

The Deosai Plains, are located above the tree line and constitute the second-highest plateau in the world at 4,115 metres (14,500 feet) after Tibet. The plateau lies east of Astore, south of Skardu and west of Ladakh. The area was declared as a national park in 1993. The Deosai Plains cover an area of almost 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi). For over half the year (between September and May), Deosai is snow-bound and cut off from rest of Astore and Baltistan in winters. The village of Deosai lies close to Chilum chokki and is connected with the Kargil district of Ladakh through an all-weather road.

Rock art and petroglyphs

There are more than 50,000 pieces of rock art (petroglyphs) and inscriptions all along the Karakoram Highway in Gilgit-Baltistan, concentrated at ten major sites between Hunza and Shatial. The carvings were left by invaders, traders, and pilgrims who passed along the trade route, as well as by locals. The earliest date back to between 5000 and 1000 BCE, showing single animals, triangular men and hunting scenes in which the animals are larger than the hunters. These carvings were pecked into the rock with stone tools and are covered with a thick patina that proves their age.

The ethnologist Karl Jettmar has pieced together the history of the area from inscriptions and recorded his findings in Rock Carvings and Inscriptions in the Northern Areas of Pakistan[104] and the later-released Between Gandhara and the Silk Roads — Rock Carvings Along the Karakoram Highway.[105] Many of these carvings and inscriptions will be inundated and/or destroyed when the planned Basha-Diamir dam is built and the Karakoram Highway is widened.

Climate

The climate of Gilgit-Baltistan varies from region to region, surrounding mountain ranges creates sharp variations in weather. The eastern part has the moist zone of the western Himalayas, but going toward Karakoram and Hindu Kush, the climate dries considerably.[106]

There are towns like Gilgit and Chilas that are very hot during the day in summer yet cold at night and valleys like Astore, Khaplu, Yasin, Hunza, and Nagar, where the temperatures are cold even in summer.[107]

Economy and resources

See also: Education in Gilgit-Baltistan

The economy of the region is primarily based on a traditional route of trade, the historic Silk Road. The China Trade Organization forum led the people of the area to actively invest and learn modern trade know-how from its Chinese neighbor Xinjiang. Later, the establishment of a chamber of commerce and the Sustdry port (in Gojal Hunza) are milestones. The rest of the economy is shouldered by mainly agriculture and tourism. Agricultural products are wheat, corn (maize), barley, and fruits. Tourism is mostly in trekking and mountaineering, and this industry is growing in importance.[108][109]

In early September 2009, Pakistan signed an agreement with the People's Republic of China for a major energy project in Gilgit-Baltistan which includes the construction of a 7,000-megawatt dam at Bunji in the Astore District.[110]

Mountaineering

Gilgit-Baltistan is home to more than 20 peaks of over 20,000 feet (6,100 m), including K-2 the second highest mountain on Earth.[112] Other well known peaks include Masherbrum (also known as K1), Broad Peak, Hidden Peak, Gasherbrum II, Gasherbrum IV, and Chogolisa, situated in Khaplu Valley. The following peaks have so far been scaled by various expeditions:

Rock carvings

The Hanzal stupa dates from the Buddhist era

"The ancient Stupa – rock carvings of Buddha, everywhere in the region is a pointer to the firm hold of the Buddhist rules for such a long time."[18]

Map of Tibetan Empire citing the areas of Gilgit-Baltistan as part of its kingdom in 780–790 CE
Map of Gilgit-Baltistan, showing the boundaries of six of the ten present districts and their tehsils. The boundary between the recently created Hunza and Nagar districts and the now smaller Gilgit District is the same line as the northern boundary of the former Gilgit tehsil. That tehsil appears as the southernmost division of the area shown above in light blue. Aliabad, the administrative center of the new Hunza and Nagar Districts, is not yet shown on this map. Note: An up-to-date map showing the boundaries of all nine of the present districts is sorely needed.
Map of Gilgit-Baltistan showing its position relative to Azad Kashmir

Naltar Lakes

Naltar Lake or Bashkiri Lake-I

Naltar Lake or Bashkiri Lake-II

Azure colored water of Naltar Lake III

Surface elevation = 3050–3150 m[103]

Montage of Gilgit-Baltistan
The Trango Towers offer some of the largest cliffs and most challenging rock climbing in the world, and every year a number of expeditions from all corners of the globe visit Karakoram to climb the challenging granite.[111]

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