Non Plural Words Ending In Essay

I. Forming Plural Nouns

a. Common and proper nouns generally add “s” to form the plural.
Examples: dogs, houses, papers, Smiths

b. Nouns that end in a sibilant (hissing) sound, add “es”.
These consonants include: (soft "ch", "s", "sh", "ss", "x", and "z")
Examples: biases, lasses, dishes, birches, boxes, quizzes

c. Nouns ending in “o” add “s” or “es”.

1. The plurals of most nouns ending in an "o" that's preceded by a vowel are formed by adding "s".

cameocameos
foliofolios
kangarookangaroos
patiopatios
portfolioportfolios
radioradios
studiostudios
tattootattoos
videovideos
zoozoos


2. The plurals of most nouns ending in an "o" that's preceded by a consonant are formed by adding "es".

banjobanjoes
echoechoes
embargoembargoes
heroheroes
potatopotatoes
tomatotomatoes
torpedotorpedoes
vetovetoes


3. Exceptions: All musical terms ending in an "o" form plurals by adding only an "s".

solosolos
sopranosopranos
duoduos
pianopianos


4. Some nouns ending in “o” may add either “es” or “s”.The words in bold are www.merriam-webster.com's preferred spelling.

avocadoavocadosavocadoes
buffalobuffalosbuffaloes
cargocargoscargoes
desperadodesperadosdesperadoes
dominodominosdominoes
ghettoghettosghettoes
halohaloshaloes
hobohoboshoboes
innuendoinnuendosinnuendoes
mangomangosmangoes
mementomementosmomentoes
mosquitomosquitosmosquitoes
mottomottosmottoes
nonosnoes
tornadotornadostornadoes
volcanovolcanosvolcanoes
zerozeroszeroes


5. These do not follow the consonant rule and need to be memorized.

armadilloarmadillos
autoautos
bravobravos
broncobroncos
casinocasinos
combocombos
gazebogazebos
kilokilos
kimonokimonos
logologos
memomemos
ponchoponchos
photophotos
pimentopimentos
propros
sombrerosombreros
tacotacos
memomemos
torsotorsos
tobaccotobaccos
tipotipos


6. Some nouns are the same in both singular and plural form and will also need to be memorized.

aircraftaircraft
bass (fish)bass
bisonbison
deerdeer
fishfish
fowlfowl
halibuthalibut
moosemoose
salmonsalmon
sheepsheep
stone (British weight measurement)stone
spacecraftspacecraft
tunatuna
trouttrout

Anytime there is uncertainty as to which rule or exception to use, consult a dictionary.

These examples are not comprehensive, nor is the challenge meant to be comprehensive.

Forming Nouns Challenge - Part 1B

What is a noncount noun?

Noncount (or uncountable) nouns exist as masses or abstract quantities that cannot be counted. They have no plural form. Although most English nouns are count nouns, noncount nouns frequently occur in academic writing.

Here are some common categories of noncount nouns. Like all things in English (and language in general), there may be exceptions.

A mass:work, equipment, homework, money, transportation, clothing, luggage, jewelry, traffic

A natural substance: air, ice, water, fire, wood, blood, hair, gold, silver

Food: milk, rice, coffee, bread, sugar, meat, water

An abstract concept: advice, happiness, health, education, research, knowledge, information, time

A game: soccer, tennis, basketball, hockey, football, chess, checkers

A disease: diabetes, measles, polio, influenza, malaria, hypothyroidism, arthritis

A subject of study: economics, physics, astronomy, biology, history, statistics

A language: Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, English

An activity (in the –ing form): swimming, dancing, reading, smoking, drinking, studying

 

Important: Noncount nouns do not use the indefinite articles a/an. They can, however, use the definite article the if what is being referred to is specific. They can also use no article if what is being referred to is general (generic) or nonspecific. Please see our page on article usage for more information.

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