Orem’s Self Care Deficit Theory and its Application in Practice
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One of the theories of nursing is Dorothea Orem’s self-care theory, also called the self-care deficit theory. Nursing theories are important for several reasons. The profession is strengthened when knowledge is built on sound theory (Black, 2014). Theory is important for reasoning, thinking, decision-making, and supporting excellence in practice (Black, 2014). Dorothea Orem’s theory is a conceptual model that provides a structure for critical thinking in the nursing process (Black, 2014). A conceptual model provides a comprehensive and holistic perspective of nursing (Black, 2014). Orem published her theory in 1959 and continued to develop her model, eventually formalizing three interrelated theories: theory of self-care, theory of…show more content…
Developmental self-care requisites are associated with adjusting to change. Health deviation requisites deal with the demands of an illness (Gonzalo, 2011). Orem’s self-care requisites can all be evaluated in a general health assessment (currentnursing.com, 2011). Air can be assessed by outward appearance, lab tests, knowing any history of respiratory disease, and determining if the patient is a smoker. Water can be assessed by skin turgor, presence of edema, input and output measurements, Food can be assessed by a dietary history, weight gain or loss, and bowel habits. Elimination can be assessed by pattern, bowel sounds, dietary habits, and any chronic conditions. Asking about activity, assessing gait and muscle tone, and assessing sleep patterns and neurological function can determine activity and rest. Solitude and social interaction can be determined by asking if the patient lives alone, if the patient has any family or friends, and if the patient has hearing or vision problems (currentnursing.com, 2011). Well-being can be assessed by determining if there are hazards present such as alcohol, drugs, or if the patient has difficulty moving around (currentnursing.com, 2011). Normalcy can be determined by assessing how the patient feels about the world and others
Dorothea Orem developed a model of self-care and that of a self-care deficit. The Self-care Care Deficit Theory she proposes entails three aspects namely; self-care, deficit concerning self-care and nursing systems. Dorothea in her theory opined that people should be responsible or have the ability to engage in taking care of their personal needs and care or self-care. Thus, she noted that such responsibility is an actual practice of a person that starts his or her performance in ensuring that they maintain their well-being besides ensuring good life and health. Dorothea was able to name such responsibility as self-care.
Self-care is an essential aspect of nursing since it emphasizes on the proper interaction and communication among people to help nurses attain their quality services besides enabling the patients to improve on their self-care. Thus, nurses are usually in the forefront in ensuring that all the patients comprehend all manners and ways of taking care of themselves. Concerning the above response, the nurse henceforth should understand all the capabilities of the patients besides giving them proper motivation to take care of themselves. Accomplishing such objective requires that both the nurses and the patients have same goals and feelings hence they should effectively communicate to each other. Furthermore, nurses should perform transactional analyses to ensure that they communicate well with the patients. Therefore, under self-care, patients should be responsible for providing a healthy relationship with the nurses to improve their health.
The Self-care Deficit Theory incorporate six concepts namely the self-care, nursing agency, self-care deficit, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care needs, nursing system and the marginal of a minimal condition. Therefore, in her postulation, Orem reveals that individuals can engage in self-care of which she calls self-care agency. On a separate note, Dorothea notes that people can find and identify different therapeutic self-care needs especially individuals who are dependent from their colleagues or socially dependent on improving on their abilities. On the same note, she denotes that there is indeed a relationship between the self-care deficit dependent and the skills of the nurses or care providers that she mentions as dependent care gap.
Elsewhere, on her theory, Orem notes that nursing agency is important since it is the level of capacity that nurses have to meet all the self-care demands of patients. However, their activities should be well coordinated to the patients henceforth require the corporation and coordination of these patients. Therefore, Dorothea Orem’s model majorly focuses on the patients who cannot coordinate with the nurses to fulfill their needs to ensure high-quality self-care. Such individuals need services from nurses to minimise their risks by making sure that they become independent to manage diseases successfully. Therefore, through her theory, she can demonstrate universality, developmental as well as the health deviation aspects. Regarding universal, Orem highlights that such is necessary for all the age groups in the healthcare system. On the same note, the developmental should focus on specific age groups while the health deviation should emphasis on a given healthcare problem. Thus, the theory ensures that patients become active and participative in their life and at different stages of their health conditions.
In a nutshell, Dorothea Orem through her self-care deficit theory reveals the importance of encouraging patients and nurses to be responsible and independent to ensure wellness. In particular, she delves into personal and self-care through a proper support from nurses, family members among others in ensuring that a patient gets a maximum and real life. The theory is essential in the nursing profession in particular for determining all the demands of self-care.