Sinularia Sp Classification Essay

2.1. Selection and Quantification of Terpene/Sterol NMR Signals

Full assignment of the major NMR signals in coral secondary metabolites described herein was performed as detailed in our previous work using 1D (one-dimensional) NMR and 2D (two-dimensional) NMR experiments [18]. Nevertheless, for the quantification described herein using 1D NMR to be optimal, full relaxation of the protons of diterpene signals and the internal standard HMDS had to be achieved. For that, a rather large sum of relaxation delay and acquisition time of 23 s was employed for NMR acquisition, as the longest relaxation times were 4.5 s for the HMDS protons. For quantification, NMR signals unique to each metabolite, and also sufficiently separated from neighboring signals, were selected. Methyl signals were of premium preference as their large integration demarcates them readily from the noisy background set off by the many single protons derived from other, less abundant compounds (Figure 1). Figure 2 shows a representative 1H-NMR spectrum of Sarcophyton convolutum (SC1), with assigned NMR signals used for metabolite quantification as summarized in Suppl. Table S2. Quantified NMR signals belonged to one sesquiterpene viz. guaiacophine, four diterpenes viz. sarcophine, and one sterol viz. gorgosterol (Figure 1). For N1 guaiacophine, the signal of H3-14 (δH 1.13 ppm, d, J = 6.9 Hz) was used for quantification, being more intense than its olefinic proton H-6 (δH 6.26 ppm) and also better separated than H3-12 (δH 1.81 ppm) and H3-13 (δH 1.82 ppm) signals. The latter ones slightly overlapped with H3-17 (δH 1.79 ppm) present in diterpenes N2–N5 (Figure 2). Absence of N1 guaiacophine in some soft coral specimens was affirmed by the absence of its H3-14 and olefinic H-6 NMR signals as evident in Figure 2. The cembranoid diterpenes N2-N5 exhibit almost similar structural features (Figure 1), including a 14-membered macrocyclic sarcophine skeleton fused to a five-membered α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone ring. With regard to structural differences, the diterpene enantiomers N2/3 exhibit an epoxy bridge between C7/C8, whereas the diastereomers N4/N5 are epimers with two vicinal hydroxyl groups at C7/C8. Consequently, the signal of H-7 in N2/3, N4, and N5 was used for quantification appearing at δ 2.63, 3.44, and 3.55 ppm, respectively. In detail, integration of the H-7 signal at δH 2.63 ppm was used to quantify N2/3 and to distinguish them from the diastereoisomeric pair N4/5. Analogously, the signals of H-7 appearing at δH 3.44 ppm and δH 3.55 ppm in N4 and N5 were used for their respective quantification. The steroid gorgosterol (N6) bears a characteristic cyclopropane ring in its side chain (a gorgostane-type side chain) and was quantified from its unique H-30a (δH 0.48 ppm & dd, J = 9, 4.2 Hz). In contrast, signal for H-30b was found to be interfering with other unknown protons. Although H3-27 signal (δH 0.80 ppm & d, J = 6 Hz) is quite distant from H3-15 in N1 (δH 0.89 ppm & d, J = 6 Hz), it was not used for quantification as it showed more than one crosspeak correlation in HSQC (data not shown). Consequently, signal of H-30a was used for quantification, despite its low signal/noise ratio when compared to its counterpart H3-27 (Figure S1). All other methyl group signals of H3-18, H3-19, H3-21, H3-26, H3-28, and H3-29 in N6 were not well resolved from those belonging to other diterpenes found in extract.

Sesquiterpenes are represented by guaiacophine (N1), which was found to occur at its highest levels of ca. 10 µg/mg mostly in S. convolutum (SC) and in one of the S. glaucum specimens (SG1) (Figure 3). Compared to the sesquiterpene “guaiacophine”, diterpenes (N2–5) form the major class of secondary metabolites in corals. The enantiomers sarcophine/ent-sarcophine (N2/3) were the most abundant diterpenes in samples of S. acutum (SA), S. convolutum (SC2), S. ehrenbergi (SE2-4), S. glaucum (SG), and S. regulare (SR1-3). Among the monitored metabolites, dihydroxydeepoxysarcophine diastereoisomers (N4/N5) and gorgosterol (N6) were the ones detected in all species examined (Figure 3). The highest levels of diterpene N4 were recorded in S. convolutum (SC1) and in an unidentified Sarcophyton sp. (S) at ca. 25.6 and 31 µg/mg, respectively, versus the lowest levels detected in the Lobophyton (LP) species (ca. 5.5 µg/mg). Interestingly, N5, a diastereomer of N4, showed a slightly different accumulation pattern to N4 with maximum levels observed in both S. glaucum (SG1) and S. convolutum (SC2) at ca. 33 µg/mg, and minimal abundance in S. ehrenbergi (SE4) at 4.6 µg/mg. Gorgosterol, a common sterol, was found at levels ranging from ca. 26 µg/mg in S. acutum (SR1) to almost being absent in Sinularia species (SP).

2.2. Multivariate Data Analysis of the Targeted Metabolite Profiling by qNMR of Soft Corals

Targeted metabolite analyses of the 16 soft coral specimens (Suppl. Table S1) were based on the quantifiable compounds (Figure 1). This allowed us to assess the heterogeneity among coral specimens and to compare it to the untargeted NMR approach reported earlier [18]. The two major principal components (PC1/PC2) accounted for ca. 85.8% of the total variance. The loading plot (Figure 4a) revealed that dihydroxydeepoxysarcophine and gorgosterol (N4-6) were most responsible for coral discrimination via PC1. Dihydroxydeepoxysarcophine and gorgosterol were both positively correlated to PC1. In contrast, guaiacophine (N1) and sarcophine/ent-sarcophine (N2/3) were associated with sample segregation along PC2. Sinularia and Lobophyton were clustered together on the negative side of PC1, suggesting that a targeted profiling approach, limited as it is, could readily discriminate them from Sarcophyton genus. Aquarium grown soft corals (SE4 and SG3) were clustered together on the negative side of PC1. The positive side of PC1 showed clustering of S. regulare sp. (SR1-3) individual specimens suggesting that the geographical impact on metabolite composition is not very strong in these species. In contrast, in case of either S. glaucum sp. (SG1-3) or S. ehrenbergi sp. (SE1-4) specimens, samples failed to cluster together.

Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) is an additional tool for revealing interrelationships among coral species. It also offers a more intuitive graphical way for result interpretation. HCA showed two clear clusters: group A comprised of six specimens, whereas group B included the remaining 10 soft coral specimens (Figure 4b). Group A showed a distinct subcluster (1A) of Sinularia and Lobophyton species that are chemically different from the rest of Sarcophyton sp., providing evidence for the validity of the employed targeted profiling approach for coral classification. Sinularia and Lobophyton species were included in the study as distant outliers to assess whether the multivariate data analysis model can effectively distinguish between various Sarcophyton sp. Group A also displayed a distinct sub-cluster (2A) constituted of the aquarium grown soft corals (SE4 and SG3). Similar to PCA results (Figure 4a), all specimens for either S. glaucum or S. ehrenbergi failed to cluster in one group (Figure 4b).

2.3. Cytotoxic Activity of Soft Corals

Soft coral ethyl acetate extracts subjected to NMR fingerprinting were further assessed for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human colon epithelium adenocarcinoma cell lines (HT29) and human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3). Both cell lines showed a comparable response towards S. ehrenbergi (SE2 & SE4), S. glaucum (SG1 & SG3), S. regulare (SR3), and Sinularia and Lobophyton species, with respective IC50 values of ca. 22, 33, 36, 60, 21, 8, and 9 µg/mL as shown in Figure 5. S. acutum, S. convolutum, S. glaucum (SG2), and S. regulare (SR1) displayed a stronger cytotoxic activity against HT29, while S. regulare (SR2) was more effective against PC3.

Homework Mix Playlists


Do you I Need Help Writing My Personal Statement help with with essay, research paper, homework or even dissertation?

Visit our website - https://goo.gl/HKbmHS (assignmenthelp24.com)





=================>>>CLICK HERE=================

=================>>>CLICK HERE=================

=================>>>CLICK HERE=================







=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP=================

=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP=================

=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP=================





learn how to write essays for free
free games to improve critical thinking
assignment on political system of islam
essay money not everything
abina and the important men essay definition
animal cell thesis statement
essays on the play tartuffe
steele and addison essays
english useful phrases for essays on music
julia alvarez poem analysis essays
mcs 023 solved assignment 2014/15 sp authentic hockey box break
example thesis statement for cause and effect essay topic
academic writing of essay
a good thesis statement for illegal immigration
velcourt scholarship essay
best in class essay prompt
dynamism of a dog on a leash essay typer
example of explanatory synthesis essay
english essay book for css showings
cmd change to different drive letter reassignment
pham nuwen vernor vinge bibliography
I Need Help Writing My Personal Statement california bar exam passing essay score
essay demonstrating bravery essays
my favorite subject is science I Need Help Writing My Personal Statement essay questions
macbeth's own ambition essay
alternate source of energy essay
writer's block definition I Need Help Writing My Personal Statement essay
dissertation gratuite sans payer conjugation
ap biology exam essays 2010 ford
pbcc boca raton admissions essay
leiningen versus the ants critical thinking questions about the holocaust
rosa parks civil rights essay prompt
mccombs study abroad application essay
I Need Help Writing My Personal Statement title of essays that talk about jk rowling
essays on peter paul rubens
assignment 2 political parties and the electoral process for kids
essay about abortion should not be legalized marijuana
sir gawain and the green knight text analysis essay
special assignment witchcraft the lotus
essay on kailash satyarthi pronunciation
essays on high fructose corn syrup
national security vs privacy essay
hour poem comparison essays
how to end my essay about myself
bad day at school essays
personal statement for english major
ptlls assignment 1 boundaries with kids
canadian cultural identity essay prompts
self reliance essay topics
mohsin hamid essays on love
the war prayer I Need Help Writing My Personal Statement essay
argumentative essay on science and religion
writing national honor society essay
essay my country vietnam war
are work cited pages double spaced essay
distinctive voices essay introduction
rastko mocnik bibliography template
check my research paper for errors for free
why did reconstruction fail essay
topics for a research paper with an argument with myself lyrics
adversities in life should make you better not bitter essay help
argumentative thesis statement against abortion
argumentative essay a rose for emily
george macdonald fraser bibliography definition
gaeilge essay
case study houses taschen beverly hills
philieano holy homework help
when writing a multiple-perspective analysis essay you will
griffin hospital ct internal medicine residency personal statement
alexander theroux essays on leadership
5 homework
dengue in pakistan essay
mediocre love definition essay
bio 101 week 2 assignment 1
homework help grade 5 math review
sardar illustration essay
compassionate reassignment for army civilians overseas
example of variables in a research paper
counterclaim example definition essay
daughter refuses to do homework
charles dickens great expectations essays
silver bay au pair homework online
ecasd south middle school homework hotline rochester
research paper topics hotel industry
pollution in india essay wikipedia
global warming essay with subheadings for apa
sustainability in business thesis statement
advantages and disadvantages of the internet student essay
bronx-lebanon hospital center general surgery residency personal statement
a cool title for an essay
rule of 3 essay writing
mcs 021 solved assignment 2015-16 college
end bullying essay conclusion
ib world literature essay conclusion paragraph
influence of media essay in urdu
bibliography style latex order appearance discrimination
dommage moral dissertation abstract
essay on indian science achievements of ancient
personal development plan sample essay about yourself
examples english essay
bhrashtachar in hindi essay wikipedia english
sinularia sp classification essay
a2 pe coursework hockey equipment
essay 247
tok essay question 15
the blind side essay on racism in education
god of small things essay topics
scarlatti tilt essay format
essay template form
disadvantages of coeducation in points essays
gray tree piet mondrian descriptive essay
silver bay homework assignments
shakespeare introduction essay structure
book titles in essays ukc
alice walker's essay in search of zora neale hurston
analytical essay sicko
ethics in psychology essay
college essay entry topics for research
erp case study ppt
supply chain case study interview questions
kate swanson case study
essay for orchestra elliot del borgo obituary
sample character traits essay
sports drinks vs water essay papers
fashion design essays
apa bibliography interview format template
ariel hessayon goldsmiths vle
critical thinking lessons for high school students
ap literature research paper rubric
climate change thesis statements
suny farmingdale college prowler no essay
y dance review essay
topics for a division and classification essay
stunde des zwielichts proquest digital dissertations
sehat in urdu essay book
case study presentation interview examples and answers
article on protection of environment essay
bluest eye beauty essay
umbrella topic definition essay
essays for ptlls 3
is it good to hear music while doing homework late
an essay on importance of education in wikipedia main
britain awake speech analysis essay
freizeit essay
essay on biodiversity in hyderabad the great
parent helping child with homework clipart for kids
research paper quotes
essay about effects of homelessness
answer essay questions apa format
procreation family definition essay

0 Replies to “Sinularia Sp Classification Essay”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *