Bca 2 Sem Solved Assignment Of 1431

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9. Markopoulos C, Tzoracoleftherakis E, Koukouras D, Venizelos B, Zobolas V, Misitzis J, et al. Age effect on bone mineral density changes in breast cancer patients receiving anastrozole: results from the ARBI prospective clinical trial. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138(9):1569–1577. Epub 2012/05/04. PubMed PMID: 22552718; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3418493. [PMC free article][PubMed]

10. Van Poznak C. Managing bone mineral density with oral bisphosphonate therapy in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibition. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12(3):110. Epub 2010/06/30. PubMed PMID: 20584345; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2917025. [PMC free article][PubMed]

11. Markopoulos C, Tzoracoleftherakis E, Polychronis A, Venizelos B, Dafni U, Xepapadakis G, et al. Management of anastrozole-induced bone loss in breast cancer patients with oral risedronate: results from the ARBI prospective clinical trial. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12(2):R24. Epub 2010/04/20. PubMed PMID: 20398352; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2879572. [PMC free article][PubMed]

12. Sestak I, Singh S, Cuzick J, Blake GM, Patel R, Gossiel F, et al. Changes in bone mineral density at 3 years in postmenopausal women receiving anastrozole and risedronate in the IBIS-II bone substudy: an international, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(13):1460–1468. Epub 2014/12/03. PubMed PMID: 25456365. [PubMed]

13. Sergi G, Pintore G, Falci C, Veronese N, Berton L, Perissinotto E, et al. Preventive effect of risedronate on bone loss and frailty fractures in elderly women treated with anastrozole for early breast cancer. J Bone Miner Metab. 2012;30(4):461–467. Epub 2011/12/14. PubMed PMID: 22160398. [PubMed]

14. Lester JE, Dodwell D, Purohit OP, Gutcher SA, Ellis SP, Thorpe R, et al. Prevention of anastrozole-induced bone loss with monthly oral ibandronate during adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(19):6336–6342. Epub 2008/10/03. PubMed PMID: 18829518. [PubMed]

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16. Briot K, Tubiana-Hulin M, Bastit L, Kloos I, Roux C. Effect of a switch of aromatase inhibitors on musculoskeletal symptoms in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer: the ATOLL (articular tolerance of letrozole) study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120(1):127–134. Epub 2009/12/26. PubMed PMID: 20035381. [PubMed]

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19. Cosman F, de Beur SJ, LeBoff MS, Lewiecki EM, Tanner B, Randall S, et al. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2014;25(10):2359–2381. Epub 2014/09/04. PubMed PMID: 25182228; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4176573. [PMC free article][PubMed]

20. Kanis JA. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: synopsis of a WHO report. WHO Study Group. Osteoporos Int. 1994;4:368–381.[PubMed]

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23. Howell A. Effect of anastrozole on bone mineral density: 2-year results of the 'Arimidex' (anastrozole), Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial; Presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2003; 2003.

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25. Brufsky A, Harker W, Beck J, Carroll R, Tan-Chiu E, Seidler C, et al. Zoledronic acid (ZA) effectively inhibits cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with early breast cancer (BCa) receiving adjuvant Letrozole (Let): 12 mos BMD results of the Z-FAST trial; Presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO); 2005.

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27. Brufsky AM, Bosserman LD, Caradonna RR, Haley BB, Jones CM, Moore HC, et al. Zoledronic acid effectively prevents aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole: Z-FAST study 36-month follow-up results. Clin Breast Cancer. 2009;9(2):77–85. Epub 2009/05/13. PubMed PMID: 19433387. [PubMed]

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COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 AUTUMN 2017

Question No.5:-
WRITE A NOTE (IN YOUR OWN WORDS) ON THE FOLLOWING:
> COMPUTER LANGUAGES
> DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE

Answer:-
> COMPUTER LANGUAGES
Around the world language is a source of communication among human beings. Similarly, in order to communicate with computer user also needs to have a language that should be understandable by the computers. For the purpose different languages are developed for performing different types of work on the computer.
Mainly there are two types of computer languages.

COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431 BACHELOR STUDENTS

Low Level Computer Languages
These are machine codes or close to it. Computer cannot understand instruction given in high level languages or in English It can only understand and execute instructions given in the form of machine languages i.e. the binary number 0 and 1. There are two types of low level computer language.
Machine Language
The lowest and most elementary language and was the first type of programming language to be developed. Mache language is basically the only language which computer can understand. In fact, a manufacturer designs a computer to obey just one language, its machine code, which is represented inside the computer by a string of binary digits (bits) 0 and 1. The symbol 0 stand for the absence of an electric pulse and 1 for the presence of an electric pulse. Since a computer is capable of recognizing electric signals, therefore, it understands machine language.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
The set of binary codes which can be recognize by the computer is known as the machine code instruction set. A machine language instruction consists of an operation code one or more operands. The operation code specifies that operation that is to be performed e.g. read, record etc. the operands identify the quantities to be operated on e.g. the numbers to be added or the locations where data are stored. But, it is almost impossible to write programs directly in machine code. For this reason, programs are normally written in assembly or high level languages and then are translated in the machine language by different translators.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
ADVANTAGES
• It makes fast and efficient use of the computer • It requires no translator to translate the code i.e. directly understood by the computer.
DISADVANTAGES
• All operation codes have to be remembered • All memory addresses have to be remembered • It is hard to amend or find errors in a program written in the machine language
These languages are machine dependent i.e. a particular machine language can be used on only one type of computer.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGES
It was developed to overcome some of the many inconveniences of machine language. This is another low level but a very important language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and l’s. These alphanumeric symbols will be known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combinations e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, START LABEL etc. because of this feature it is also known as “Symbolic Programming Language”. This language is very difficult and needs a lot of practice to master it because very small English support is given. This symbolic language helps in compiler orientations. The instructions of the assembly language will also be converted to machine codes by language translator to be executed by the computer

COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431

ADVANTAGES
• It is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language • It is easy to locate and correct errors • It is modified easily

DISADVANTAGES
• Like machine language it is also machine dependent • since it is machine dependent, there programmer should have the knowledge of the hardware also

COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
➢ DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE
Software development is a process by which standalone or individual software is created using a specific programming language. It involves writing a series of interrelated programming code, which provides the functionality of the developed software.
Software development may also be called application development and software design
Software development is an iterative logical process that aims to create a computer coded or programmed software to address a unique business or personal objective, goal or process. Software development is generally a planned initiative that consists of various steps or stages that result in the creation of operational software.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
Software development is primarily achieved through computer programming, which is carried out by a software programmer and includes processes such as initial research, data flow design, process flow design, flow charts, technical documentation, software testing, debugging and other software architecture techniques. This is known as the software development life cycle (SDLC) A software development process or life cycle is a structure imposed on the development of a software product. There are several models for such processes, each describing approaches to a variety of tasks or activities that take place during the process.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
PROCESSES
More and more software development organizations implement process methodologies.
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is one of the leading models. Independent assessments can be used to grade organizations on how well they create software according to how they define and execute their processes.
There are dozens of others, with other popular ones being ISO 9000, ISO 15504, and Six Sigma. Process Activities/Steps Software Engineering processes are composed of many activities, notably the following:
REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
Extracting the requirements of a desired software product is the first task in creating it. While customers probably believe they know what the software is to do, it may require skill and experience in software engineering to recognize incomplete, ambiguous or contradictory requirements.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
SPECIFICATION
Specification is the task of precisely describing the software to be written, in a mathematically rigorous way. In practice, most successful specifications are written to understand and fine-tune applications that were already well-developed, although safety-critical software systems are often carefully specified prior to application development. Specifications are most important for external interfaces that must remain stable.
Software architecture
The architecture of a software system refers to an abstract representation of that system. Architecture is concerned with making sure the software system will meet the requirements of the product, as well as ensuring that future requirements can be addressed.
Implementation
Reducing a design to code may be the most obvious part of the software engineering job, but it is not necessarily the largest portion.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
Testing
Testing of parts of software, especially where code by two different engineers must work together, falls to the software engineer. Documentation An important task is documenting the internal design of software for the purpose of future maintenance and enhancement.
Training and Support
A large percentage of software projects fail because the developers fail to realize that it doesn’t matter how much time and planning a development team puts into creating software if nobody in an organization ends up using it. People are occasionally resistant to change and avoid venturing into an unfamiliar area, so as a part of the deployment phase, its very important to have training classes for the most enthusiastic software users (build excitement and confidence), shifting the training towards the neutral users intermixed with the avid supporters, and finally incorporate the rest of the organization into adopting the new software. Users will have lots of questions and software problems which leads to the next phase of software.
COMPUTER AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2 CODE 1431
Maintenance
Maintaining and enhancing software to cope with newly discovered problems or new requirements can take far more time than the initial development of the software. Not only may it be necessary to add code that does not fit the original design but just determining how software works at some point after it is completed may require significant effort by a software engineer. About 60% of all software engineering work is maintenance, but this statistic can be misleading. A small part of that is fixing bugs. Most maintenance is extending systems to do new things, which in many ways can be considered new work.

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