Bca 2 Sem Solved Assignment Of 1431

1. Becker T, Lipscombe L, Narod S, Simmons C, Anderson GM, Rochon PA. Systematic review of bone health in older women treated with aromatase inhibitors for early-stage breast cancer. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(9):1761–1767. Epub 2012/09/19. PubMed PMID: 22985145. [PubMed]

2. Bauer M, Bryce J, Hadji P. Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss and its management with bisphosphonates in patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer (Dove Medical Press) 2012;4:91–101. Epub 2012/01/01. PubMed PMID: 24367197; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3846762. [PMC free article][PubMed]

3. Hadji P. Guidelines for Osteoprotection in Breast Cancer Patients on an Aromatase Inhibitor. Breast care (Basel, Switzerland) 2010;5(5):290–296. Epub 2010/01/01. PubMed PMID: 21779210; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3132952. [PMC free article][PubMed]

4. Greenspan SL, Brufsky A, Lembersky BC, Bhattacharya R, Vujevich KT, Perera S, et al. Risedronate Prevents Bone Loss in Breast Cancer Survivors: a 2 Year, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(16):2644–2652. PubMed PMID: 18427147; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3992822. [PMC free article][PubMed]

5. Brufsky AM, Harker WG, Beck JT, Bosserman L, Vogel C, Seidler C, et al. Final 5-year results of Z-FAST trial: adjuvant zoledronic acid maintains bone mass in postmenopausal breast cancer patients receiving letrozole. Cancer. 2012;118(5):1192–1201. Epub 2011/10/12. PubMed PMID: 21987386. [PubMed]

6. Llombart A, Frassoldati A, Paija O, Sleeboom HP, Jerusalem G, Mebis J, et al. Immediate Administration of Zoledronic Acid Reduces Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women With Early Breast Cancer: 12-month analysis of the E-ZO-FAST trial. Clin Breast Cancer. 2012;12(1):40–48. Epub 2011/10/22. PubMed PMID: 22014381. [PubMed]

7. Gnant M, Mlineritsch B, Luschin-Ebengreuth G, Kainberger F, Kassmann H, Piswanger-Solkner JC, et al. Adjuvant endocrine therapy plus zoledronic acid in premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer: 5-year follow-up of the ABCSG-12 bone-mineral density substudy. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(9):840–849. Epub 2008/08/23. PubMed PMID: 18718815. [PubMed]

8. Van Poznak C, Hannon RA, Mackey JR, Campone M, Apffelstaedt JP, Clack G, et al. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss using risedronate: the SABRE trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(6):967–975. Epub 2010/01/13. PubMed PMID: 20065185. [PubMed]

9. Markopoulos C, Tzoracoleftherakis E, Koukouras D, Venizelos B, Zobolas V, Misitzis J, et al. Age effect on bone mineral density changes in breast cancer patients receiving anastrozole: results from the ARBI prospective clinical trial. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138(9):1569–1577. Epub 2012/05/04. PubMed PMID: 22552718; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3418493. [PMC free article][PubMed]

10. Van Poznak C. Managing bone mineral density with oral bisphosphonate therapy in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibition. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12(3):110. Epub 2010/06/30. PubMed PMID: 20584345; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2917025. [PMC free article][PubMed]

11. Markopoulos C, Tzoracoleftherakis E, Polychronis A, Venizelos B, Dafni U, Xepapadakis G, et al. Management of anastrozole-induced bone loss in breast cancer patients with oral risedronate: results from the ARBI prospective clinical trial. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12(2):R24. Epub 2010/04/20. PubMed PMID: 20398352; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc2879572. [PMC free article][PubMed]

12. Sestak I, Singh S, Cuzick J, Blake GM, Patel R, Gossiel F, et al. Changes in bone mineral density at 3 years in postmenopausal women receiving anastrozole and risedronate in the IBIS-II bone substudy: an international, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(13):1460–1468. Epub 2014/12/03. PubMed PMID: 25456365. [PubMed]

13. Sergi G, Pintore G, Falci C, Veronese N, Berton L, Perissinotto E, et al. Preventive effect of risedronate on bone loss and frailty fractures in elderly women treated with anastrozole for early breast cancer. J Bone Miner Metab. 2012;30(4):461–467. Epub 2011/12/14. PubMed PMID: 22160398. [PubMed]

14. Lester JE, Dodwell D, Purohit OP, Gutcher SA, Ellis SP, Thorpe R, et al. Prevention of anastrozole-induced bone loss with monthly oral ibandronate during adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(19):6336–6342. Epub 2008/10/03. PubMed PMID: 18829518. [PubMed]

15. Henry NL, Azzouz F, Desta Z, Li L, Nguyen AT, Lemler S, et al. Predictors of aromatase inhibitor discontinuation as a result of treatment-emergent symptoms in early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(9):936–942. Epub 2012/02/15. PubMed PMID: 22331951; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3341106. [PMC free article][PubMed]

16. Briot K, Tubiana-Hulin M, Bastit L, Kloos I, Roux C. Effect of a switch of aromatase inhibitors on musculoskeletal symptoms in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer: the ATOLL (articular tolerance of letrozole) study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120(1):127–134. Epub 2009/12/26. PubMed PMID: 20035381. [PubMed]

17. Dawson-Hughes B, Jacques P, Shipp C. Dietary calcium intake and bone loss from the spine in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;46:685–687.[PubMed]

18. DRI Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2011. Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D, Calcium. Food, Nutrition B.

19. Cosman F, de Beur SJ, LeBoff MS, Lewiecki EM, Tanner B, Randall S, et al. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2014;25(10):2359–2381. Epub 2014/09/04. PubMed PMID: 25182228; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4176573. [PMC free article][PubMed]

20. Kanis JA. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: synopsis of a WHO report. WHO Study Group. Osteoporos Int. 1994;4:368–381.[PubMed]

21. Varney LF, Parker RA, Vincelette A, Greenspan SL. Classification of osteoporosis and osteopenia in postmenopausal women is dependent on site-specific analysis. J Clin Densitom. 1999;2:275–283.[PubMed]

22. Coleman RE, Banks LM, Girgis SI, Vrdoljak E, Fox J, Porter LS, et al. Skeletal effect of exemestane in the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES) 2 year bone mineral density (BMD) and bone biomarker data; Presented at 28th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2005.

23. Howell A. Effect of anastrozole on bone mineral density: 2-year results of the 'Arimidex' (anastrozole), Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial; Presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2003; 2003.

24. Lonning PE, Geisler J, Krag LE, Erikstein B, Bremnes Y, Hagen AI, et al. Effects of Exemestane Administered for 2 Years Versus Placebo on Bone Mineral Density, Bone Biomarkers, and Plama Lipids in Patients With Surgically Resected Early Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:5126–5137.[PubMed]

25. Brufsky A, Harker W, Beck J, Carroll R, Tan-Chiu E, Seidler C, et al. Zoledronic acid (ZA) effectively inhibits cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with early breast cancer (BCa) receiving adjuvant Letrozole (Let): 12 mos BMD results of the Z-FAST trial; Presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO); 2005.

26. Rubin DB. Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 1987.

27. Brufsky AM, Bosserman LD, Caradonna RR, Haley BB, Jones CM, Moore HC, et al. Zoledronic acid effectively prevents aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole: Z-FAST study 36-month follow-up results. Clin Breast Cancer. 2009;9(2):77–85. Epub 2009/05/13. PubMed PMID: 19433387. [PubMed]

28. Valachis A, Polyzos NP, Coleman RE, Gnant M, Eidtmann H, Brufsky AM, et al. Adjuvant therapy with zoledronic acid in patients with breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oncologist. 2013;18(4):353–361. Epub 2013/02/14. PubMed PMID: 23404816; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3639520. [PMC free article][PubMed]

29. Lonning PE, Eikesdal HP. Aromatase inhibition 2013: clinical state of the art and questions that remain to be solved. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013;20(4):R183–R201. Epub 2013/04/30. PubMed PMID: 23625614; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3689263. [PMC free article][PubMed]

30. Mathew A, Brufsky A. Bisphosphonates in breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2014 Epub 2014/05/16. PubMed PMID: 24824552.

31. Ellis GK, Bone HG, Chlebowski R, Paul D, Spadafora S, Fan M, et al. Effect of denosumab on bone mineral density in women receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for non-metastatic breast cancer: subgroup analyses of a phase 3 study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;118(1):81–87. Epub 2009/03/25. PubMed PMID: 19308727. [PubMed]

32. Ellis GK, Bone HG, Chlebowski R, Paul D, Spadafora S, Smith J, et al. Randomized trial of denosumab in patients receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for nonmetastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(30):4875–4882. Epub 2008/08/30. PubMed PMID: 18725648. [PubMed]

33. Greenspan SL, Parker RA, Ferguson L, Rosen HN, Maitland-Ramsey L, Karpf DB. Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover predict the long-term response to alendronate therapy in representative elderly women: a randomized clinical trial. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13:1431–1438.[PubMed]

34. Greenspan SL, Rosen HN, Parker RA. Early changes in serum N-telopeptide and C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type 1 predict long-term response to alendronate therapy in elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:3537–3540.[PubMed]

Computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 is ready for the posting so you don’t wait more and start to write the computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 for the semester autumn 2017. All students who enrolled in autumn semester need this computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 so find here this assignment. Our team of expert include all the data that is necessary for this computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431. You can also find this computer aiou solved assignment 2 code 1431 on the google as well like on the social media.


Question No.5:-

Around the world language is a source of communication among human beings. Similarly, in order to communicate with computer user also needs to have a language that should be understandable by the computers. For the purpose different languages are developed for performing different types of work on the computer.
Mainly there are two types of computer languages.


Low Level Computer Languages
These are machine codes or close to it. Computer cannot understand instruction given in high level languages or in English It can only understand and execute instructions given in the form of machine languages i.e. the binary number 0 and 1. There are two types of low level computer language.
Machine Language
The lowest and most elementary language and was the first type of programming language to be developed. Mache language is basically the only language which computer can understand. In fact, a manufacturer designs a computer to obey just one language, its machine code, which is represented inside the computer by a string of binary digits (bits) 0 and 1. The symbol 0 stand for the absence of an electric pulse and 1 for the presence of an electric pulse. Since a computer is capable of recognizing electric signals, therefore, it understands machine language.
The set of binary codes which can be recognize by the computer is known as the machine code instruction set. A machine language instruction consists of an operation code one or more operands. The operation code specifies that operation that is to be performed e.g. read, record etc. the operands identify the quantities to be operated on e.g. the numbers to be added or the locations where data are stored. But, it is almost impossible to write programs directly in machine code. For this reason, programs are normally written in assembly or high level languages and then are translated in the machine language by different translators.
• It makes fast and efficient use of the computer • It requires no translator to translate the code i.e. directly understood by the computer.
• All operation codes have to be remembered • All memory addresses have to be remembered • It is hard to amend or find errors in a program written in the machine language
These languages are machine dependent i.e. a particular machine language can be used on only one type of computer.
It was developed to overcome some of the many inconveniences of machine language. This is another low level but a very important language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and l’s. These alphanumeric symbols will be known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combinations e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, START LABEL etc. because of this feature it is also known as “Symbolic Programming Language”. This language is very difficult and needs a lot of practice to master it because very small English support is given. This symbolic language helps in compiler orientations. The instructions of the assembly language will also be converted to machine codes by language translator to be executed by the computer


• It is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language • It is easy to locate and correct errors • It is modified easily

• Like machine language it is also machine dependent • since it is machine dependent, there programmer should have the knowledge of the hardware also

Software development is a process by which standalone or individual software is created using a specific programming language. It involves writing a series of interrelated programming code, which provides the functionality of the developed software.
Software development may also be called application development and software design
Software development is an iterative logical process that aims to create a computer coded or programmed software to address a unique business or personal objective, goal or process. Software development is generally a planned initiative that consists of various steps or stages that result in the creation of operational software.
Software development is primarily achieved through computer programming, which is carried out by a software programmer and includes processes such as initial research, data flow design, process flow design, flow charts, technical documentation, software testing, debugging and other software architecture techniques. This is known as the software development life cycle (SDLC) A software development process or life cycle is a structure imposed on the development of a software product. There are several models for such processes, each describing approaches to a variety of tasks or activities that take place during the process.
More and more software development organizations implement process methodologies.
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is one of the leading models. Independent assessments can be used to grade organizations on how well they create software according to how they define and execute their processes.
There are dozens of others, with other popular ones being ISO 9000, ISO 15504, and Six Sigma. Process Activities/Steps Software Engineering processes are composed of many activities, notably the following:
Extracting the requirements of a desired software product is the first task in creating it. While customers probably believe they know what the software is to do, it may require skill and experience in software engineering to recognize incomplete, ambiguous or contradictory requirements.
Specification is the task of precisely describing the software to be written, in a mathematically rigorous way. In practice, most successful specifications are written to understand and fine-tune applications that were already well-developed, although safety-critical software systems are often carefully specified prior to application development. Specifications are most important for external interfaces that must remain stable.
Software architecture
The architecture of a software system refers to an abstract representation of that system. Architecture is concerned with making sure the software system will meet the requirements of the product, as well as ensuring that future requirements can be addressed.
Reducing a design to code may be the most obvious part of the software engineering job, but it is not necessarily the largest portion.
Testing of parts of software, especially where code by two different engineers must work together, falls to the software engineer. Documentation An important task is documenting the internal design of software for the purpose of future maintenance and enhancement.
Training and Support
A large percentage of software projects fail because the developers fail to realize that it doesn’t matter how much time and planning a development team puts into creating software if nobody in an organization ends up using it. People are occasionally resistant to change and avoid venturing into an unfamiliar area, so as a part of the deployment phase, its very important to have training classes for the most enthusiastic software users (build excitement and confidence), shifting the training towards the neutral users intermixed with the avid supporters, and finally incorporate the rest of the organization into adopting the new software. Users will have lots of questions and software problems which leads to the next phase of software.
Maintaining and enhancing software to cope with newly discovered problems or new requirements can take far more time than the initial development of the software. Not only may it be necessary to add code that does not fit the original design but just determining how software works at some point after it is completed may require significant effort by a software engineer. About 60% of all software engineering work is maintenance, but this statistic can be misleading. A small part of that is fixing bugs. Most maintenance is extending systems to do new things, which in many ways can be considered new work.



IF You Want More Assignments Then SHare It

0 Replies to “Bca 2 Sem Solved Assignment Of 1431”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *